Critical raw materials

Other Sc- and/or Critical Raw Material (CRM) containing wastes/by-products

Emese Vaszita

There are other potential industrial by-products besides bauxite residue and  titanium dioxide (TiO2)  production waste, which may contain elevated amounts of Sc.

During the SCALE project the consortium examined the chemical and mineralogical composition of the following secondary raw materials beyond the SCALE consortium to contribute to the European Sc-containing waste inventory, since the SCALE Project tries to improve the knowledge about scandium-resources to enable the future development of a European scandium industry:


Electric arc furnace slag from nickel production

Tin slag

Blast furnace sludge from steel production

Electric arc furnace dust from steel production